Boykott jüdischer Geschäfte
Boycott of Jewish shops in Lahr on 1.4.1933.
ZT: Kundgebung gegen das Judentum Vor dem Laden von Rolf Friedmann stehen uniformierte SA-Männer mit Plakat: "Eine deutsche Hausfrau kauft nicht beim Juden". Kinder und wenige Erwachsene auf der Straße.
Context and analysis
In the Ortenau Jewish life has been detectable since the Middle Ages around 1300. 1348/49 threatened the extinction of the Jewish inhabitants, as they were held responsible for the spread of a plague. Many of them were burned at stake. It was even mentioned in contemporary sources that quite selfish interests played a part in this. In 1389 the important Jewish community in Strasbourg was dissolved. As a result, an organizational center was lost and they dispersed into the surrounding villages. In the 15th century, the Jewish businessmen were pushed out of the credit system, and Christian merchants took over this task.
At the beginning of the 17th century, Jewish traders settled again in the area of Lahr and Offenburg. They were mostly dealing with horses, metal, skins and credit. In the 18th century, some imperial knights allowed the settlement of Jews to collect income tax from them. Often, they marketed agricultural products on urban markets and artisanal products from rural cities. So they had a meaning for the rural economy. In the villages, the Jews were often forced to live in a separate area, as they were not allowed to live next to Christians. Nevertheless, there were always conflicts. After the founding of the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1808, the approximately 14,000 Jews living there received Baden citizenship. At the community level, however, their rights remained limited. Around 1830 the merchants set up shops and were very active in the cattle trade. Between the census of 1825 and 1852, the number of Jewish citizens increased from 17,577 to 23,699, most of them in the Northern part of Baden.
In 1852 Lahr had an above-average share of 3.4% of the Jewish population; the national average was 1.7%. In the 19th century, they had synagogues built at various places, often designed by the Freiburg architect Georg Jakob Schneider. His buildings reveal the influence of Reform Judaism, which tried to reconcile Judaism with the requirements of modernity. In 1848, the Second Chamber of the Baden Parliment voted for the political equality of all citizens without distinction of religious confession, and in 1862 they voted for the "Law on Civil Rights of the Israelites". This meant, for example, that Jews could settle in any place they had been denied. In 1888 a Jewish community was founded in Lahr, whose members came mainly from Schmieheim. In the 19th century, however, there was an anti-Semitic movement against the establishment of Jewish citizens in society, which openly fought against Jews and sometimes called for a boycott of their shops.
These tendencies took up the National Socialists after the seizure of power. Already in March 1933, for example, the city council Offenburg was forced in line and decided to exclude Jewish companies, shops and their branches from supplying the city administration. On April 1, 1933, there was a call for a boycott throughout the Reich to cease buying in Jewish shops. In Lahr, this boycott was documented cinematically by the amateur film maker Eugen Heine. The short film begins with a tablet "Rally against Judaism". The first shot shows SA men in front of a shop surrounded by teenagers. The second shot shows an SA man standing alone in front of Rolf Friedmann's shop. An ox cart pulls over. It follows a half-close attitude, so that the sign "A German housewife does not buy from the Jews!" is easy to read. In front of the corner shop of the Hauser family is also a solitary SA man with the same sign. The next shot corresponds to the first scene, where several SA men stand in front of a shop, surrounded by youth. A policeman with a bike stops and starts a conversation. Two SA men stand with the sign in front of a corner shop, whose shop window and front door have a clear Art Nouveau design. The final shot is underexposed and shows two SA men in front of another store. There are neither riots nor shoppers seem to come who want to go to the stores. However, this may also be related to the fact that in Lahr, the boycott call was undermined by the consumer went shopping early in the morning when the SA was not yet in front of the shops. The Lahr National Socialist newspaper "Grüsselhorn" criticized this, ungerman behavior in an article: "One should not think it possible that the country people who sell their products on the market but to German national comrades, of all their money to the Jews" (Stude 1993, pp. 156-157). According to their own statements, this boycott day hardly had any economic significance for the Jewish business people. Isolated even German fellow citizens solidarized with them. However, this day showed the National Socialists that they would face little opposition to the marginalization of Jewish citizens among the German population. How quickly the exclusion and isolation in the Ortenaukreis took place varied greatly from place to place (Baumann 2000, p. 230).
BAUMANN, Ulrich, "Zerstörte Nachbarschaften. Christen und Juden in badischen Landgemeinden 1862-1940", Dölling und Gallitz,Hamburg 2000. FÖRDERVEREIN EHEMALIGE SYNAGOGE KIPPENHERIM E.V. (Hg) (Autoren: Jürgen Stude, Bernd Rottenecker, Dieter Petri), "Jüdisches Leben in der Ortenau", seitenweise Verlag, Brühl 2018. LANDESZENTRAL FÜR POLTISCHE BILDUNG BADEN-WÜRTTEMBERG (Hg.), ""Ich weiß nicht, ob wir nochmal schreiben können". Die Deportation der badischen und saarpfäzer Juden in das Internierungslager Gurs in den Pyrenäen", LpB, Stuttgart 2010. STUDE, Jürgen, "Die Lahrer Juden", in: Stadt Lahr (Hg.): Geschichte der Stadt Lahr, Bd. 3, Lahr 1993, S. 143-167.
- This film analysis is still in progress. It may therefore be incomplete and contain errors.